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Integrated Community Case Management

Integrated Community Case Management

Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) is a community care strategy which seeks to extend case management of childhood illness beyond health facilities so that more children have access to lifesaving treatments. The iCCM package can differ based on particular contexts, but most commonly includes diarrhea, pneumonia and malaria diagnosis and treatment.  In the iCCM model, community health workers are identified and trained in diagnosis and treatment of key childhood illnesses and also in identifying children in need of immediate referral. Recent research suggests that the iCCM model can successfully increase health coverage for sick children living in remote locations.
While iCCM programs have been endorsed by major international organizations—including the WHO, UNICEF, and USAID—as a key strategy for achieving Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce child mortality, many countries have yet to implement or scale-up iCCM programs due to uncertainty about the structures and strategies needed to ensure iCCM success. Additional research is needed to help fill these gaps and promote expansion of iCCM programs across the region.
In order to reduce such uncertainty and support the roll-out of iCCM more broadly, TRAction is supporting three research studies which aim to improve successful introduction, implementation, and scale-up of iCCM programs: developing of an iCCM costing and financing tool; conducting embedded implementation research on iCCM monitoring; and investigating effective iCCM policy development processes. These areas were chosen because of their relevance to iCCM planning and implementation in low and middle income countries.

Study Summaries

Linking Policy to Implementation

Lessons Learned from the Three Studies

Improving Data to Improve Programs

Analyzing iCCM Policies

Development of a Costing and Financing Tool

Child Mortality: A Brief for Policymakers


Sharing Results and Lessons Learned

TRAction is engaging in several activities to share iCCM research findings and encourage application of lessons learned emerging from the three studies. Click on the links below to find out more about how we are distributing results and driving the conversation about iCCM.



  • Health Policy and Planning Supplement


Collaborative Efforts

Costing of iCCM

A trained community health worker (CHW) counts the breaths of a baby using a respiratory timer
Costing of iCCM

The aim of this project was to develop and test an iCCM costing and financing tool and accompanying user guide to help program planners and managers plan for and monitor iCCM programs. Specific objectives included:

  • „Providing users an understanding of the costs and financing of iCCM service delivery, supervision, and management from community to central levels.
  • Facilitating implementation, scale-up, and maintenance of iCCM activities in the future through analysis
Implemented by Management Sciences for Health
Location: Malawi, Rwanda, Senegal
Timeline: March 2011 to September 2014

Improving Data for iCCM

Photo of Ethiopian community health worker tests for malaria, Photoshare
Improving Data for iCCM

The aim of this study was to improve monitoring of iCCM programming. TRAction and its research partners addressed the following objectives: „

  • Assess iCCM monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems „
  • Identify priority gaps in iCCM M&E systems and potential innovative approaches to data collection
  • Examine feasibility, cost and quality of innovative approaches „
  • Document benefits and use of improved iCCM M&E in programmatic decisions
Implemented by the Institute for International Programs, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and Save the Children
Location: Ethiopia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique
Timeline: April 2011 to July 2014

Policy Analysis of iCCM

Photo of Rwandan mother and child, Photoshare
Policy Analysis of iCCM

The purpose of this study was to identify national and global challenges to reforming policies and designing iCCM programs, and inform global strategies for scaling-up iCCM. Specific objectives included:

  • Identifying facilitators and barriers to policy and program change
  • Assessing the roles of national and international actors in supporting or resisting policy and program development, and the networks through which they interact
  • Assessing the role of evidence in supporting policy and program development
  • Documenting and analyzing the types of policies that support or inhibit iCCM implementation, and determine which policy elements are critical to implementation success
Implemented by Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Location: Niger, Burkina Faso, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, and Malawi
Timeline: December 2011 to May 2014
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