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Evaluating Sustained Adoption of LPG stoves in Rural Ghana

LPG stove in Ghana

Research Overview

This project will evaluate clean cooking adoption within the Ghana Ministry of Energy's Rural LPG Programme (RLP), which is an ongoing program to promote liquid petroleum gas (LPG) in rural areas of Ghana. The aim of the program is to reduce the impact of widespread biomass fuel use on deforestation and adverse health outcomes, especially among women and children. As a part of the program, the Ghana Ministry of Energy distributes LPG stoves to rural households in selected districts and ensures that LPG fuel is consistently available at district filling stations. 

The current research, jointly funded by TRAction and the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, will use mixed methods to evaluate both the implementation of the program, as well as its effects on adoption of LPG and exposure to household air pollution. The research will be the first systemic evaluation of the RLP, and will help identify barriers and drivers of sustained adoption of clean cooking technology. 

Project Location

Rural Ghana

Research Objectives

  • How effective has the RLP implementation been? 
  • How much do RLP participants use their LPG stoves and their traditional three stone fires? How do these patterns change over time? 
  • What household characteristics predict LPG use among RLP participants? 
  • What, if any, are the facilitators and barriers to sustained, exclusive use of LPG in participating households? 
  • How does the RLP affect personal air pollution exposures? 

Study Approach

In January 2014, the Ghana Ministry of Energy established the Rural LPG Programme (RLP), with the goal of promoting LPG in rural Ghana through the provision of LPG stoves and the optimization of LPG supply networks in LPG communities. While the RLP has distributed over 20,000 stoves, there is no systematic monitoring and evaluation system in place, demonstrating the need for further evaluation of the efficacy of the RLP.This study employs mixed methods to evaluate the RLP, including implementation of the program, its impact on LPG adoption and air quality, and the factors influencing LPG adoption. Effectiveness of the RLP implementation will be qualitatively evaluated through semistructured interviews with RLP personnel and other key stakeholders. The use of traditional versus LPG stove use will be measured using stove use monitors (SUMs) for a minimum of 100 days in 200 RLP households. Sustained users of LPG, households that use LPG for at least 80% of total cooking, will be identified. Qualitative in-depth interviews and focus group discussions will be held with women and men to determine the barriers and motivators for sustained, exclusive use of LPG. Household characteristics that predict LPG use among RLP participants will be evaluated with a combination of the SUMS data and household characteristics data obtained from quantitative questionnaires. Finally, HAP exposures will be measured in order to determine the impact of LPG stoves on HAP exposures. Primary cooks will wear personal CO exposure monitors for a 48-hour period at three, six, and nine months after the study begins.

Research into Action

KHRC and its partners will disseminate key findings from this research through presentations at local, national, and international conferences, and the publication of scientific manuscripts. Findings and implications of the research will also be summarized and discussed with the Ghana RLP to inform scale-up of the program.

Research Partners

Kintampo Health Research Centre
Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University
Co-Principal Investigator and Project Director: Kwaku Poku Asante, MD, MPH, PhD, Kintampo Health Research Centre
Co-Principal Investigator: Darby Jack, PhD, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University

Project Status

Project Status: Implementation

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