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Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

TRAction's WASH efforts are concentrated around population density, sanitation, and health. TRAction's ongoing WASH research in Maputo, Mozambique is the first of its kind in many respects:
  1. The first controlled health impact trial of an urban decentralized sanitation intervention,
  2. The first sanitation health impact trial of shared sanitation
  3. The first sanitation health impact trial using a direct measure of enteric infections as a primary outcome measure, and
  4. The first sanitation health impact trial that includes a focus on localized population density
With towns and cities across the world growing by over a million people a week, it is important to think of how such rapid urbanization challenges raises challenges for the delivery of basic services, including water and sanitation. One out of four city residents worldwide lives without access to improved sanitation facilities and 27% of city residents do not have access to piped water at home. By concentrating WASH research efforts on urban settings, results from TRAction research studies will be highly valuable in the years to come. 


Key Results

(Coming Soon)

Our Partners

  • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and Georgia Institute of Technology
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • Research institute for compassionate economics (rice)


Publications from TRAction Research


Collaborative Efforts

Sanitation & Population Density: Guatemala

Boy collecting water at handpump, TRAction
Analyzing Sanitation and Population Density in Guatemala

University of California at Berkeley conducted a desk review analysis of the effects of sanitation interventions on population health in Guatemala. By analyzing existing data in new ways, researchers at UC Berkeley are attempting to understand the relationships between population density, sanitation, and health outcomes.

Sanitation & Population Density: Multi-Country

Rural water supply, TRAction
Analyzing Sanitation and Population Density: a Multi-Country Review

RICE Institute conducted a desk review on the relationship between population density and sanitation interventions. The goal of this research is to more fully characterize the impact of WASH interventions in areas of high population density, given that urban populations are growing rapidly worldwide. RICE’s research compares the effect of sanitation interventions on health impacts across both high and low population density settings in India, Bangladesh, Cambodia, and Nigeria.

WASH Efforts and Population Density

Photo of Community Sanitation Block in Maputo

TRAction intends to fund an empirical study to assess the relationship between sanitation coverage and population density, within the context of an existing WASH development project. The research will address how varying degrees of access to basic sanitation affect the risk of diarrheal diseases and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among children living in high-density, low-income settlements compared to similar access in lower density, low-income areas.

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